Motor activity, mobility, curiosity are the characteristics of the normal development of a child. But there is a group of children in whom these qualities reach a pathological level. Such children are called hyperactive, that is, hyperactive.
Currently, this problem is acquiring not only psychological but also social significance, since psychomotor anxiety, disinhibition, increased irritability prevent such children from adapting to life in society, assimilating the school curriculum.
Hyperactivity is one of the pathological manifestations is part of a whole complex of disorders that make up “attention deficit hyperactivity disorder” (ADHD). In the development of this syndrome, three groups of factors are considered dominant.
– genetic factors;
– damage to the central nervous system during pregnancy and childbirth;
– the negative effect of intrafamilial factors.
The main manifestations of ADHD are hyperactivity, attention deficit, and impulsivity. Poor school performance and communication difficulties are equally serious secondary impairments.
More or less distinct manifestations of ADHD become 3-4 years old, but already in early childhood such babies stand out among their peers with high sensitivity to external stimuli, increased muscle tone, poor sleep, and disinhibition during wakefulness.
The mood of hyperactive children is unstable, there is a hot temper, aggressiveness, which often leads to conflicts with others. The child experiences difficulties in a team of peers who refuse to communicate with him, motivating this with his pugnaciousness and inability to play.
Criteria for identifying a hyperactive child
1. Often unable to maintain attention to detail; due to negligence, frivolity, makes mistakes in school assignments, in the tasks performed, and in other activities.
2. Usually has difficulty retaining attention when doing assignments or while playing, easily distracted.
3. Often is unable to adhere to the proposed instructions, has difficulty completing homework or homework (which has nothing to do with negative or protest behavior).
4. Often has difficulty in organizing independent tasks and other activities.
5. Usually avoids, complains, and resists tasks that require extended attention.
6. Frequently loses things (toys, school supplies, pencils, books, work tools).
7. Often shows forgetfulness in everyday situations.
1. Restless movements in the hands and feet are often observed; sitting on a chair, spinning, spinning.
2. Often gets up from his seat during lessons or in other situations when you need to stay put.
3. Often exhibits aimless physical activity: running, spinning, trying to climb somewhere, and in situations where this is unacceptable.
4. Too talkative.
1. Often answers questions without hesitation, without listening to them to the end.
2. Often interferes with others, harasses others (for example, interferes in conversations or games).
If the symptoms persist for 6 months and are pronounced, this indicates a discrepancy between the psychological age characteristics of the child.
Tips for parents:
• be sure to consult a specialist (psychologist, neurologist);
• while raising a hyperactive child, avoid extremes: manifestations of excessive pity and permissiveness, on the one hand, and the establishment of excessive demands in front of the child, on the other hand;
• try to communicate with your child calmly and with restraint, minimize prohibitions and the words “no”, “no”, exclude from your speech negativism like “do not turn around, I am talking to you”;
• adhere to a “positive model” of upbringing, avoid excessive punctuality, harsh punishments, always praise the child when he deserves it;
• while working with your child, give him only one task for a certain period of time so that he can complete it;
• when explaining a task, use visual stimulation (drawings, pictures, etc.);
• especially encourage the child for all activities that require concentration, perseverance, the concentration of attention;
• have a well-defined daily routine and patiently demand adherence to it, especially sleep patterns;
• limit the stay of the child in large companies;
• do not provoke your child into noisy games with the participation of other children (ideal when your child plays with one more, but no more);
• create a calm atmosphere in the family, do not quarrel in his presence, do not speak in a raised voice;
• every day set before the child a definite and very specific goal that he can achieve, be sure to praise him for completing the task, encourage him in one way or another;
• teach your child to exercise, sports, walks in the fresh air, outdoor games; help him find some kind of hobby, hobby, without overloading the child with activities in different circles (this especially applies to those cases when the child does not feel much joy from these activities).
These tips are designed to help parents and teachers in systematizing the child’s life, its rational organization, which will contribute to positive changes in his personality and behavior.