The acceleration of the rhythm of modern life has led to a significant increase in the physical, mental, and emotional burden on a person caused by everyday problems, interpersonal relationships, the content of professional activities, and information overload. Quite often, a person has to stay in a state of emotional tension, experience a feeling of increased anxiety, anxiety, self-doubt, i.e., experience the so-called “emotional stress”.STRESS. Such conditions are often accompanied not only by a violation of mental balance, but also by a number of negative changes in the functioning of physiological mechanisms in the human body. According to WHO, up to 40% of the world’s population needs the help of medical specialists.
WHAT IS STRESS, WHAT ARE THE CAUSES AND FACTORS.
The term “stress” (translated from English stress) means “pressure, pressure, tension”.
According to the Big Explanatory Dictionary of the Russian Language,”Stress is a state of tension in the human or animal body as a protective reaction to various adverse factors (cold, starvation, physical and mental injuries, etc.)”.
At its core, stress is a response of the human body to overexertion, negative and positive emotions. During times of stress, the human body produces the hormone adrenaline, which makes you look for a way out. Stress in small amounts is necessary for everyone, as it makes you think, look for a way out of the problem, and in this case it has a positive value. But on the other hand, if stress becomes too much, the body weakens, loses strength, the ability to solve problems and can cause serious diseases.
Stress can be divided into:
Positive and negative – according to the degree of emotional coloring.
Short-term and long-term (or acute and chronic) – by duration.
Physiological and psychological-the latter, in turn, are divided into informational and emotional ones due to their occurrence.
Sources of stress can be:
External – moving to a new place of residence, changing jobs, the death of a loved one, divorce, everyday troubles related to money problems, meeting obligations by a certain deadline, disputes, family relations, lack of sleep Internal – a revision of life values and beliefs, a change in personal self-esteem, etc.
The causes and factorsthat cause stress (psychologists call them stressors) are diverse and numerous:
life changes (vacation, new job, marriage, divorce, etc.);
any strong emotion;
physical injury, surgery, or illness;
sudden changes in temperature, etc.
Any kind of change, even positive ones, forces us to adapt to new circumstances. But with all the variety of experiences and shock situations that occur in our lives, the body’s response to any stress is essentially the same – the body starts biochemical processes developed many centuries ago, the purpose of which is to cope with an extreme situation. Over time, the effects of stressors add up and accumulate. The more of them we have in our lives at a given time, the higher our stress level will be.
The body’s defense response to the ongoing or repeated action of a stressor goes through three specific stages.
In the first stage – an alarm response (in response to irritation, regardless of its nature), all body systems are activated.
In the second stage-the stage of resistance (resistance, resistance), the body begins to adapt to the ongoing action of the stressor.
The third stage is the stage of exhaustion, which occurs with prolonged exposure to a stressor. The energy required for adaptation is depleted, and the overall resistance of the body plummets. If no help is provided during this period, the stage of exhaustion can end in a serious illness and even death.
SYMPTOMS OF STRESS AND POSSIBLE CONSEQUENCES OF IT
Symptoms may gradually increase or occur suddenly, within a few minutes. There are attacks of anxiety, anxiety, panic These reactions, which usually last only a short time, occur in the form of emotional outbursts, accompanied by a sense of horror and body reactions such as increased heartbeat and sweating. Anxiety tends to develop gradually. Symptoms may also include muscle tension, fatigue, irritability, impatience, insomnia or sleep disorders, difficulty concentrating, low mood, or vice versa, overexcitation, anger, memory impairment, increased fatigue, etc.
Stress is the main risk factor for the occurrence and exacerbation of many diseases: cardiovascular (myocardial infarction, angina pectoris, hypertension), gastrointestinal tract (gastritis, peptic ulcer of the stomach and duodenum), decreased immunity.
Negative reactions are caused not only by strong, acute, but also by small, but long-term stressful effects. Therefore, prolonged psychological stress, depression can also lead to diseases.
Treatment of stress with medication is indicated only as prescribed by a doctor. Taking into account the patient’s condition, the doctor may prescribe sedatives (medications that reduce nervous tension and excitement, as well as reduce feelings of fear) or tranquilizers (medications that help relieve emotional tension).
WAYS AND PRINCIPLES OF COPING WITH STRESS
Each of us has our own level of stress, which is determined by hereditary and other factors and our own level of attitude and response to stress.
Different people respond to stress in different ways: some people begin to consume an incredible amount of food, others completely lose their appetite; some people find it difficult to fall asleep at night, while others experience drowsiness even during the day.
The basic principles of coping with stress include:
Distraction from a stressful situation – if what is happening makes a strong impression on a person and then he continues to think about it, then he is “stuck” in a stressful situation and does not think about how to resolve it, but constantly worries about the eventsthat have occurred . To distract yourself from a stressful situation, you need to think about something else related to pleasant sensations and experiences (rest, a pleasant event, personal achievements).
Reducing the subjective significance of the event that caused stress – to reconsider your attitude to what happened according to the principle:”What is not done is for the best…”.
Active behavior – do not keep the feelings and emotions that have caused stress in yourself, but throw out the accumulated energy by doing some even unthinkable thing (for example, washing the window or floor with a toothbrush, wiping clean dishes, etc.); as well as playing sports, playing football, volleyball, etc.
Ability to relax-stress causes general tension and an increase in the frequency of brain activity waves. Relaxation, on the contrary, reduces their frequency, which leads to a decrease in the level of arousal of the central nervous system.
Positive thinking – a positive way of thinking and the associated positive emotions of kindness, love, and joy-is the main personal tool for ensuring health and well-being.
Other ways to relieve stress and maintain mental health include the following::
In any situation, you should remain optimistic.
Strive for reasonable organization in life, work, and everyday life.
Learn to say no to yourself, not to take on too many problems, especially those of others, by defining the limits of your own capabilities.
Learn to enjoy life.
Don’t be a maximalist.
Do not dig into your past, and even more so do not regret what you did not do once or did something wrong.
Follow a proper diet, sleep and rest.
Do not abuse alcohol, refrain from bad habits.
Lead a healthy, active lifestyleby engaging in daily physical exercises and self-massage of the head, neck, shoulders, and feet.
If necessary, reduce the pace of life and review some life positions.
Remember! It is impossible to completely eliminate stressful situations from your life, but you can live and work in such a way as to minimize their number, minimize their consequences and thereby preserve your health for many years to come.