Classification of personality psychotypes.
Well-known psychological types were identified and described by the Austrian psychiatrist and psychoanalyst C. G. Jung.
His theory of “introversion-extroversion”, as well as the four types of perception of the world, has developed and continues to develop.
Psychotypes of personality proposed by Jung:
Personality types depending on the vector of its orientation:
Extrovert – a person who is psychologically oriented to the outside world; sociable, active, active.
Introvert – a person focused on the inner world; closed, sensitive, reasonable.
Psychological types depending on the predominant way of perceiving life, in other words, on the main mental function:
The thinking type is a person who mainly relies on logic and thinking in making decisions. The sphere of feelings is suppressed.
The feeling type – a person focused on feelings, judges in terms of “good – bad”, and not logically.
The sensing type is a person who perceives life directly with the senses, he looks, listens, touches and makes a decision based on the information received. Intuition is suppressed by them.
Intuitive type – a person who relies on a “sixth” sense; such people make decisions based on intuitive, unconscious knowledge, and not on direct sensations.
Based on Jung’s typology, in the seventies and eighties of the last century, the Soviet sociologist A. Augustinaviciute developed one of the most detailed and reliable personal typologies and became the founder of the scientific direction called “socionics”.
A. E. LICHKO
Another Soviet scientist A. E. Lichko, observing teenagers, identified psychological types that describe the types of accentuations of character. Accentuation – excessive strengthening of certain character traits, psychological deviations that border on psychopathology, but do not go beyond the norm.
In adolescence, crisis age, accentuation is most pronounced.
Later, the character is “smoothed out”, and accentuation is manifested only in crisis, stressful situations.
The German scientist K. Leonhard proposed a similar classification, but did not limit it to the puberty period. The classification is based on the assessment of a person’s communication style with their close environment.
Psychological types according to K. Leonhard:
Hyperthymic. Optimistic, sociable, proactive, active, conflicted, irritable, frivolous.
Dysthymic. Pessimistic, silent, reserved, non-confrontational, conscientious, fair.
Cycloid. Changeable type, combining hyperthymia and dysthymia.
Excitable. Slow, irritable, moody, domineering, conscientious, neat, loving animals and children.
Getting stuck. Perfectionist, inquisitive, fair, ambitious, touchy, suspicious, jealous.
Pedantic. Formalist and accurate, serious, reliable, non-confrontational, passive, boring.
Disturbing. Timid, insecure, defenseless, pessimistic, self-critical, friendly, executive, sensitive.
Emotive. Overly vulnerable, tearful, passive, kind, compassionate, responsive, executive.
Demonstrative. Can be both a leader and an opportunist; self-confident, artistic, courteous, engaging, unconventional, selfish, boastful, lazy.
Exalted. Extremely sociable, experiencing bright and sincere feelings, amorous, altruistic, compassionate, changeable, prone to panic and exaggerate.
Extroverted. Sociable and talkative, open, executive, not serious, prone to excitement and risk.
Introverted. Idealist, closed-minded, philosophical, non-confrontational, principled, reserved, stubborn, stubborn.
Classification of personality psychotypes depending on temperament
Most often, the typology of personality is compiled based on differences in the temperaments and characters of people
The first known typology of personality depending on the type of temperament was proposed by the ancient Greek physician Hippocrates. It still remains relevant and popular, although the scientist did not connect individual typological features of the individual with the properties of the nervous system (as is customary now).
The psychotype of a person according to Hippocrates depends on the ratio of various fluids in the body: blood, lymph and two types of bile.
Psychological types of temperament according to Hippocrates:
phlegmatic – a person whose body is dominated by lymph (phlegm), which makes him calm and slow;
melancholic – a person whose body is dominated by black bile (melane hole), which is why he is afraid and prone to sadness;
sanguine – a person who has a lot of blood in his body( sanguis), mobile and cheerful;
choleric – hot and impulsive, in his body a lot of yellow bile (chole).
For many centuries, the doctrine of temperaments has been developed and supplemented. In particular, this was done by the German philosopher I. Kant and the Russian physiologist I. P. Pavlov. Today, the names of temperament types remain the same, but the essence has changed.
Temperament-a combination of innate features of higher nervous activity. It depends on the speed and strength of the processes of excitation and inhibition in the brain. Thus, a weak type of higher nervous activity corresponds to the temperament of a melancholic; strong balanced, but inert-phlegmatic; choleric-strong and unbalanced; strong, balanced and mobile-sanguine.
At the beginning of the twentieth century, the German psychiatrist E. Kretschmer identified different personality types depending on the character. This was the first character classification. Kretschmer linked the psychotype of a person with the constitution of his body.
Three types of body constitution:
Asthenic. Thin and tall people, they have elongated arms and legs, underdeveloped muscles.
Athletic. People are strong, well-muscled, average or above average height.
Picnic. Obese people with underdeveloped muscles and musculoskeletal system, of medium or small stature.
Since E. Kretschmer was a psychiatrist, he compared personality types with a tendency to a particular psychopathology and grouped them into two personality types:
Schizotimics are mentally healthy people of athletic or asthenic physique, vaguely resembling patients with schizophrenia. They are characterized by such character traits: artistry, sensitivity, aloofness, selfishness, authority.
Cyclothymics are mentally healthy people of picnical physique, resembling patients with manic-depressive psychosis. They are cheerful, optimistic, sociable, frivolous people.
E. Kretschmer’s theory was based only on his personal observations, but served as the basis for subsequent, more complex typologies of character. Much later, scientists came to the conclusion that the shape of the body really affects the character and individual typological features of the individual. The connection between the constitution of the body and the tendency to accentuate the character (extreme degree of normal functioning of the psyche) and psychopathology does exist.
Classification of personality psychotypes depending on character.
People differ not only in their character traits, but also in their attitude to life, society, and moral values. Despite the fact that there is a concept of proper behavior, people behave differently.
German psychoanalyst and sociologist E. Fromm introduced the concept of “social character” and defined it as a certain identical set of character traits in the personality structure of the majority of members of a particular community. Any community, class, or group of people has a certain social character.
Social character was taken as the basis for the classification of psychological personality types.
Psychological types of personality according to E. Fromm:
A person who is inclined to direct aggression at himself or at other people, if he considers them guilty of personal failures or problems of the entire society. Such people strive for self-improvement, are insecure, punctual, responsible, demanding, domineering, and like to terrorize others, justifying their actions with good intentions.
Psychological masochism is almost always combined with sadism. However, there are people who are more inclined to one of the types.
Individual typological features of the Masochist: self-deprecation, self-criticism, the tendency to always blame yourself for everything. Fromm defined the” sadist ” as an authoritarian personality. This is an exploitative person, domineering and cruel.
Does not cause suffering to himself or others, but aggressively eliminates the cause of his troubles. In order not to feel powerless and frustrated, a person ends a relationship or interrupts a business that has been started, that is, uses destructiveness as a means of resolving any trouble. “Destroyers” are usually people who are anxious, desperate, cowardly, limited in the realization of their capabilities and abilities.
Unlike the two previous psychological types, the “conformist” is passive. He does not struggle, but comes to terms with difficult life circumstances. This is too labile a person who has practically lost his job.
He is an adaptable person who will change the point of view, behavior, principles and even the type of thinking that the situation requires. Such people can be immoral, so they do not see anything shameful in changing their points of view and life values.
Such a social typology does not characterize people from the best side, but it reveals the problems of society and remains extremely relevant in our time.
It is impossible to say which of the typologies is better, they complement each other. Any typology of personality allows an individual to know himself and at the same time realize his uniqueness.
The reason for the division into psychotypes.
Philosophers and scientists at all times of the existence of a civilized society have tried to distinguish and distinguish psychological types of people from the diversity of the nature of human nature. Many classifications are based on observations of people, life experience, or the conclusions of the scientist who proposed a particular typology. Only in the last century, in connection with the flourishing of psychology, personality psychotypes became the object of research and received proper scientific justification.
Despite the variety of psychological types that exist today, it can be difficult to determine what type of personality a person belongs to. Often, when reading the classification of types and wanting to find themselves, the individual cannot decide or finds several types at once that are similar to the individual typological features of their own personality.
The disadvantage of any typology is that it cannot contain all possible personality types, because each person is an individual. We can say that a person is more likely to belong to one or another type, is more similar to it, or at some moments manifests itself in a similar way.
Any psychotype of a person is a generalization, an attempt to combine into a group qualities, character traits, temperament, behavior, and other individually typological personality traits that are close and often observed together.
Personality types are often exaggerated and simplified, describing deviant behavior (even psychopathology) or only those personality qualities that are pronounced and stereotyped, stereotyped.
Pure types are rare. However, every second person, reading a particular typology or passing a psychological test, easily determines their psychotype and agrees with the characteristic given to them.
The more developed the individual’s personality, the more difficult it is for him to attribute himself to a particular type of personality. A harmoniously developed personality and a bright personality hardly “fits” into any particular psychotype.
Despite the imperfection of typologies and personality types, they allow you to understand yourself, notice shortcomings, and identify ways of development. It is easier for people around an individual who know what psychological type they belong to to build relationships with them and predict their behavior in a particular situation.
Personality typology helps professional psychologists conduct psychodiagnostics of the client. A psychological profile of a person must include a description of their psychotype. Individual typological features of a person are extremely important, because they will tell you about temperament, character, abilities, emotional and volitional sphere, orientation, attitudes, motivation and values-about all the components of an individual.
There are many semi-scientific classifications of psychological types that people use in everyday life. For example, dividing people into “larks” and “owls”depending on the time of day when they are most active and able to work.
On the Internet, there are a huge number of pseudoscientific tests that are more entertaining than allowing you to understand yourself. But even such psychological tests have the right to exist, because they give rise to a person’s desire to know themselves. What are the psychotypes of people described in the science of psychology?