We might as well think of different areas of the brain as film crews.
Photographers are responsible for framing and composition.
They zoom in and zoom out, and then use film Record the video; the sound engineer is responsible for recording, they adjust the volume and filter out background noise.
There are editors and screenwriters, graphic artists, prop designers, composers At home, they are responsible for showing the tone and feelings of the characters, that is, the expression of emotions, as well as special personnel to keep books, organize financial documents, and record characters and events.
Then guide During the performance, he will decide which clip to put in and where is appropriate, and weave the causes and consequences just right to deduce a complete story.
This story is not It is randomly compiled, but the most appropriate interpretation of the “raw materials” instilled into your senses.
Anything, once it enters the brain, the brain will immediately respond to it, and add the judgment it makes and give it meaning in the fastest time.
And instructions. After that, the brain will “reorganize” all of this and think: “What does the boss mean?” In other words, the brain will respond to the original film.
Reconsider carefully again to determine where and what kind of editing, so that this “film” is most appropriately embedded in the “whole movie”.
This is a story in our lives, a “documentary” about ourselves. In this book, I will continue to use the metaphor of “film production” in order to explain the big picture vividly.
How does the brain work: how memories are formed and how they are retrieved; why memories become blurrier or clearer over time, even Even the content of memory will change; and whether it is possible for us to grasp the operation of each step, so that the details of memory become richer and more vivid.
Please remember that the director of this “personal documentary” is not a talented student who graduated from a certain film school, nor is it a big-name director from Hollywood with a large group of followers.
The director is you.
Memories are like traveling in a time tunnel Before we get into “brain biology”, I want to say a few words about “metaphors”. Analogy, from its definition, it cannot be accurate.
Metaphorically expressed The meaning is clear and vague, and it often has the meaning of “selfishness” to highlight the main intention of the metaphor.
Needless to say, the analogy of our “film crew” is also an inaccurate analogy. However, scientists have focused on the brain mechanism of memory, which is brain biology His research, to put it bluntly, is also not accurate. The best we can do right now is to use dramatic metaphors to explain how we learn new things of.
This “film crew” is actually quite appropriate. why would you said this? Let’s elaborate on a specific memory in our brain.
Let’s give a more interesting example, don’t use what is the capital of Ohio, what is the phone number of a friend of yours, or the role played by Frodo in The Lord of the Rings What is the name of the actor, etc. Those examples are not interesting. That’s it. Please think back to your first day in high school, when you stepped into the lobby of the main building, you were timid The footsteps of the senior classmates, the malicious look of the senior classmates, the bang of the bronze lock of the locker when it was snapped on… Everyone over the age of 14 will remember that day.
Situation, and it will often be a complete video clip.
That memory is stored in brain cells connected in a mesh. Once these brain cells are active at the same time, that is, “light up”, they are just like the large ones at Christmas.
The Christmas lights in the mall, for example, the blue lights flash together, showing a pattern of a sleigh; the red lights are lit, forming a pattern of snowflakes. Almost in the brain The same is true, the network of neurons will also be connected into a “color light pattern” to form images, ideas, feelings in the brain…
The brain cells that connect these “color light patterns” are called “neurons.” The core role of a brain neuron is to act as a switch, which from the channel This end receives the signal, then “lights up” or “flips” the signal, and then transmits it from the other end to another neuron connected to this neuron.
The mystery of learning
Segments of special memories formed by a neural network are not a series of random connections. When we heard the bronze lock “pop” on, our brains A string of cells are “lighted up” at the same time, which forms the first “memory” of a particular information.
And this same cluster of cells has become this special memory Collective witness. Connecting this string of cells in series is called neuronal synapses.
Every time the memory is retrieved, these synapses are thickened once, and the signal is transmitted
The speed has become a little faster.
Intuitively, we all think this makes sense, and the experience of memories is indeed like a scene reappearance.
However, it was not until 2008 that a group of scientists finally learned from human.
The composition of the memory and the moment of retrieval are directly captured in the brain.
In a treatment experiment, a group of doctors from the University of California, Los Angeles visited 13 patients
A set of fibrous wire electrodes were implanted deep in the brain.
These patients are epilepsy patients and they are waiting for brain surgery.
This is a routine operation. What is epilepsy? People have not yet fully understood that the intensely active “small wind” in the brain that causes people to suddenly get sick “Storm” always seems to arise out of thin air.
This “typhoon center” often originates from a roughly the same area in different people’s brains, but the exact location varies from person to person.
The chief surgeon can extract a small piece of brain tissue in this “core area”, but the doctor has to wait for the “typhoon” to occur before seeing and recording the location of the “typhoon center”.
This is the purpose of implanting those fibrous electrode wires-accurate positioning. This of course takes time.
So patients may lie down in the hospital for several days before waiting An uncontrolled attack of the brain.
The UCLA group of doctors took advantage of this waiting time to answer a fundamental question. The mystery of learning The doctor first asked each patient to watch a video clip of 5 to 10 seconds.
The content came from TV programs that everyone was familiar with at the time, such as “The Story of Sein Fei” and
“Persons”, or celebrity clips like “Elvis”, or some famous places. After seeing it, after a while, the doctor asked these people to recall that they had seen.
The more detailed the content, the better, so that the content you have just seen can be reproduced. At the beginning of these video clips, a computer recorded the viewer’s brain.
In the image in, about a hundred brain neurons light up. When showing different videos, the patterns of bright spots in the brain are different: some brain neurons will be extraordinarily Bright, some have no response. When the viewer later recalled the video he was watching, such as when he was talking about Homer Simpson, the pattern formed by the bright spots in his brain was similar to what he had just watched.
The brain patterns when watching the same clip are exactly the same, as if they are being replayed.
The senior scholar Itzhak Fried (Itzhak Fried) is the University of California, Los Angeles and Tel Aviv University (Tel Aviv Professor of Neurosurgery at University), he told me, “It’s amazing to see such a result in such a unique attempt.
Observation The subject is too clear, and it seems we did find the right way this time. “
This experiment ends here.
People don’t know what the patient’s memory fragments will become over time. If someone has watched hundreds of episodes “The Simpsons”, then the memory of Homer in these 5 seconds may not be long. However, it is not necessarily.
If a particular factor in this experience makes you It was particularly shocking. For example, a man in a white coat fiddled with a bunch of wires in your open head.
This scene is connected with Homer’s belly laughing in the series.
End, then this memory of yours is likely to be rooted in the depths of your heart and will be unforgettable for a lifetime.
My first day in high school was in September 1974. I can still “see” the teacher I met in the lobby of the main building after the first class bell rang.
appearance. The crowd was swarming in the hall, but I didn’t know where to go, and the thought was eagerly rolling in my mind: I will be late and I will miss what the teacher said.
I can still “see” the dusty morning light shining in the hall, the ugly blue-green wall; I also “see” a boy older than me towards him A stack of books about Winston Churchill was stuffed into the locker. I walked to the teacher and said, “I’m sorry, please…” The voice was louder than I expected.
The teacher stopped and looked at the timetable in my hand. He has a friendly look, wears a pair of gold-wire glasses, and a red, sparse hair.
He smiled faintly and said to me: “You can follow me, you are a student in my class.”
I am saved.